YouTube alert, then clicking on the button goes to 2-Step Verification Welcome page.
After that, it asks for login with a password.
At the end, it shows the profile page.
If you are a part of Google Suite domain, keep reading to find out how to fix this, otherwise there is no other choice but to contact Google Support and hope that they can help you.
The reason that this link is disabled, is most probably because 2SV is disabled for the domain.
This link shows how to enable 2SV in Google Suite Admin Panel - https://support.google.com/a/answer/9176657?hl=en&ref_topic=2759193#zippy=%2Callow-users-to-turn-on--step-verification